A blog maintained by Tevita Kete, PGR Officer
Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), Suva, Fiji Islands
This weblog documents the activities of Pacific Agricultural Genetic Resources Network (PAPGREN), along with other information on plant genetic resources (PGR) in the Pacific.
The myriad varieties found within cultivated plants are fundamental to the present and future productivity of agriculture. PAPGREN, which is coordinated by the Land Resources Division of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), helps Pacific countries and territories to conserve their crop genetic diversity sustainably, with technical assistance from the Bioversity International (BI) and support from NZAID and ACIAR.
SPC also hosts the Centre of Pacific Crops and Trees (CEPaCT). The CEPaCT maintains regional in vitro collections of crops important to the Pacific and carries out research on tissue culture technology. The CEPaCT Adviser is Dr Mary Taylor (MaryT@spc.int), the CEPaCT Curator is Ms Valerie Tuia (ValerieT@spc.int).
PAPGREN coordination and support
Mr William Wigmore
Mr Adelino S. Lorens
Dr Lois Englberger
Mr Apisai Ucuboi
Dr Maurice Wong
Mr Tianeti Beenna Ioane
Mr Frederick Muller
Mr Herman Francisco
Ms Rosa Kambuou
Ms Laisene Samuelu
Mr Jimi Saelea
Mr Tony Jansen
Mr Finao Pole
Mr Frazer Bule Lehi
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Friday, August 20, 2004
Posted 5:31 PM by Luigi
Two papers on breadfruit
News from Diane Ragone of two recent papers on breadfruit. Here are the details.
Complex origins of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): implications for human migrations in Oceania.
Nyree J. C. Zerega, Diane Ragone and Timothy J. Motley
American Journal of Botany. 2004. 91: 760-766.
ABSTRACT: Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae), a traditional starch crop in Oceania, has enjoyed legendary status ever since its rolein the infamous mutiny aboard the H.M.S. Bounty in 1789, yet its origins remain unclear. Breadfruit's closest relatives are A. camansi and A. mariannensis. DNA fingerprinting data (AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphisms) from over 200 breadfruit cultivars, 30 A. camansi, and 24 A. mariannensis individuals were used to investigate the relationships among these species. Multivariate analyses and the identification of species-specific AFLP markers indicate at least two origins of readfruit. Most Melanesian and Polynesian cultivars appear to have arisen over generations of vegetative propagation and selection from A. camansi. In contrast, most Micronesian breadfruit cultivars appear to be the result of hybridization between A. camansi-derived breadfruit and A. mariannensis. Because breadfruit depends on humans for dispersal, the data were compared to theories on the human colonization of Oceania. The results agree with the well-supported theory that humans settled Polynesia via Melanesia. Additionally, a long-distance migration from eastern Melanesia into Micronesia is supported.
Nomenclature of breadfruit cultivars in Samoa: Saliency, ambiguity and mononomiality
Diane Ragone, Gaugau Tavana, Joan M. Stevens, Patricia Ann Stewart, Rebekka Stone, Paul Matthew Cox and Paul Alan Cox
Journal of Ethnobiology. 2004. 24(1): 33-49.
ABSTRACT: Breadfruit is an important subsistence crop in the Samoan archipelago where numerous cultivars are grown and used. The diversity of breadfruit in Samoa is indicative of its antiquity and value to this society. The purpose of our study was to document and compare knowledge of breadfruit names by Samoans of a wide range of ages in both rural villages and towns and to test the relationship between saliency and binomiality. A total of 354 people were interviewed and 46 cultivar names were recorded. A binomial is used to name a breadfruit - the generic term 'ulu is given first and a second word is added to describe that particular cultivar - when the second word used alone could refer to something other than breadfruit. A monomial is used only when this term does not refer to anything else or has no other meaning. There was no significant relationship between saliency and binomiality of breadfruit names and a significant relationship between binomiality and linguistic ambiguity. A useful outcome of this study was defining 60 Samoans as "experts" using statistical measures that we will use in continuing ethnobotanical studies in Oceania and may have broader application.
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